I DO NOT RECOMMEND YOU CONSUME MUSHROOMS IDENTIFIED ON THIS SITE OR ANY OTHER WEBSITE. YOU MUST HAVE A PROFESSIONALS POSITIVE IDENTIFICATION IN PERSON. I AM NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR CONTENT POSTED ON THIS SITE. THIS CONTENT IS TO BE USED AT YOUR OWN RISK.
All my own personal finds in this photo gallery, all of the edible ones were eaten.
Two little Summer Truffles.
The inside gleba of Tuber aestivum.
Reddish like truffles in my hand found below beech but in fact I think they are Hydnotrya tulasnei. Not considered edible.
Hydnotrya tulasnei / False Truffle
More Summer Truffles and a tired dog
A fine specimen, cow web and all.
Summer truffles and wild marjoram.
Morels a close relation to truffles. These are Semi Free Morels, Morchella semilibera. Said to be edible but causes stomach upset in some people. All edible Morels must be cooked!
A happy forager Pattie Whittaker, that little Summer Truffle saved the day after a few hours of looking!
Satisfied customers Dickie and Pattie Whittaker
Fit to be in the black handed gang with two black diamonds, yes Summer Truffles again.
Semi Free Morels, they are found on loose ground and like chalk, often found growing in association with Hawthorn and Ash trees. Be careful not to confuse with False Morel or Thimble Morel, Gyromitra family and Verpa family. As if they weren't phallic enough they smell of semen, honestly!
On the left is a Thimble Morel Verpa Conica with clear stripes going around the stem with a folded cap with brain like qualities rather than pits and chambers like the honeycomb structure of real Morels. If you were to chop this mushroom in half you would see that the stem goes all the way to the top of cap. The Semi Free Morel on the right is a True Morel but the stem only goes half way up inside the cap, hence giving this mushroom its name as the cap is semi free.
A Semi Free Morel, such a stunning picture, thanks Nick Weston for this photo!
Common Morel, Yellow Morel, Morchella esculenta, a choice mushroom considered one of the best along side Truffles and Porchini. These must be cooked! The flavor is intensified when dried. These also like chalky and loose soil, they associate with Elm, Ash, Apple and Poplar. Clear distinguishing features are the pits and chambers a bit like honeycomb, the cap structure defining true Morels. If you were to cut this Morel in half the real id feature is that the stem does not enter inside the cap at all and the stem and cap are hollow and in two chambers.
A Common Morel chopped in half so that you see the inside view which distinguishes it to be a Morel and not a false one, the cap joins at the base of the mushroom leaving the cap hollow, free of stem. The caps are extremely fragile and crumble very easily.
Thimble Morels, Verpa Conica. One of them has been cut in half, you can see the cotton wool like lining in the stem. Considered edible but water must be discarded after pre boiling and process repeated again, then apparently they are ok to eat but repeated consumption is not recommended. I would not eat these as a precautionary measure. False Morels are also eaten after this preparation in some countries, although illnesses have been attributed to long term consumption of False Morels. When boilng these types of False Morels it must be done in a well ventilated room and inhalation of vapours and steam must be avoided at all cost as this would have the same effect as eating the poisonous raw False Morel. It can have fatal consequences. I do not recommend at all!!
Gyromitrin is a hemolytic toxin found in False Morels it destroys red blood cells. It affects the central nervous system and the liver and gastrointestinal tract becomes damaged. It takes between 6 to 12 hours before symptoms become apparent. The symptoms include nausea, vomiting,cramps, diarrhea, weakness and headaches; if the condition is very bad, these may develop into convulsions, jaundice, coma, and death.
Pine Bolete, Boletus pinophilus found under Douglas fir, this mushroom forms mycorhizzal associations predominantly with Conifer trees and Chestnut. These mushrooms are found in late Spring until Autumn. A firm texture and good flavor. Flesh above tubes turns reddish when cut.Stem has a reddish net like pattern which turns red if bruised, as you can see in the picture.
Pine Bolete, Pine Wood King Bolete, Boletus pinophilus. A Very good edible! No maggotts. Fruiting on there own or in groups between Spring to Autumn. This mushroom is known to be a bioaccumulator of heavy metals, especially mercury if present.
Boletus luridiformes, cap light brown to dark tan brown, stem yellow covered with red dots giving a red appearance, this mushroom bruises dark blue immediately after cutting. This mushroom is edible but MUST BE COOKED , also causes gastric upset in some! Be careful not to confuse with deadly Devil Bolete or other red pored poisonous Boletus, as a rule I only eat Boletus species with yellow pores and tubes.
Boletus Luridiformes, flushes blue on cutting straight away. The blue flushing is not an indication that this mushroom is edible as many other Boletus do this in varying degrees and some of the poisonous ones do too! Like the Oldrose Bolete, Devil Bolete or Boletus rhodoxanthus (red data list).
Chanterelle or Girolle, Cantharellus cibarius. These mushrooms can be found early in May right up until early winter, a great mushroom prized by the French and my first early memory of collecting mushrooms. They are a mycorhizzal type of mushroom and associate with many broadleaf trees and pines to form a mutually beneficial partnership. They like sandy soils and smell of apricots.They have veins instead of gills. Be careful not to confuse with the False Chanterelle or the very poisonous Jack O'lantern often found growing in clumps on dead wood. See poisonous section to compare the two.
Hedgehog Mushrooms are the white mushrooms with spines in the bottom right hand side of picture.
That's got to be the ultimate basket of Autumn mushrooms for any forager, it took me two days hunting but a proud day exhibiting it at Bentley Museum and wildfowl center.
Larch Bolete, Suillus grevilleri a popular mushroom and frequently eaten in Eastern Europe. Found under Larch in late summer through to autumn. Cap, stem and flesh are all bright yellow. The underneath has small pores also yellow bruising a pale reddish brown.
Another angle taken of the Larch Bolete but its been a bit munched. Love the bugs!
Young Winter Chanterelle, Yellow Foot, Craterellus tubaeformis
A Good view of the yellow stems and vein like gills, synonymous with Chanterelles.
A mature Winter Chanterelle, Yellow Foot, Craterellus tubaeformis, a clear shot of the vein like ridges going right down onto the stem as oppose to gills, a clear identification feature. The stem clearly yellow with a brown cap. These were found among'st various conifers predominantly pines.
Oyster Mushrooms, Pleurotus ostreatus. An edible excellent mushroom, grown commercially too for its excellence and good texture, its smells faintly of mushroom slightly sweet even minutely aniseed like. It is a saprotroph that acts as a primary decomposer on dead wood. Found frequently on fallen down Beech trees growing in shelf like formations, a fully colonized tree can look quite amazing when covered in these spectacularly oyster like mushrooms with a pearlescent shimmer, when caught in the right light! They come in various shades of white an cream and some are even almost grey/ blue. These trees can fruit up to two or three times a year, temperature change and day light hours and rain all trigger fruiting.
Baby Parasol Mushroom, Macrolepiota procera .
A fully grown Parasol Mushroom, Macrolepiota procera. This mushroom is found in pasture and in grassy fields, downland and on the edge of woodlands, its saprobic and helps decay dead organic vegetation. This mushroom has a double edged ring which will spin freely and go up and down stem, a good id feature and the stem has snake skin type markings. The cap has a pronounced brown bump in the center and the cap is covered with small brown scales These mushrooms should only be picked at full maturity ie when they are full, size as not to confuse with any smaller poisonous look alike lepiotas, Stinking Dapperlings for example.
A fully grown Parasol Mushroom, Macrolepiota procera with a good shot of that scaly cap and raised dark center. .
Cauliflower Fungus, Sparrasis crispa a parasitic mushrooom that grows on the roots of conifers. A good edible great for ravioli!
St Georges Mushroom, Calocybe gambosa a fabulous spring mushroom which virtually comes out on St Georges day. 23rd April. It is found within a broad soil type but likes chalk. I It grows in rings and troops under hedges on the side of roads (do not eat mushrooms from the side of roads, they absorb heavy metals and pollutants from cars) in fields and woodlands. It has a strong mealy smell, firm white flesh and gills,a very good edible. Be careful not to confuse with spring species of Entoloma, these generally have pinkish gills and no mealy aroma.
A Spring basket of joy! St Georges, Primrose flowers and violets.
A Common Puff Ball, Lycoperdon perlatum edible when young but not choice.
An old Common Puff Ball, Lycoperdon perlatum that has shot out its spores to the wind!
A Mosiac Puff Ball, Handkea utriformis found on heaths, pasture and grass fields. This is an amazing looking puff ball and gets to big sizes approx 20 cm tall and 25 cm wide with an amazing mosiac pattern and texture. Smell not all that pleasant a bit inky but edible non the less when young. This mushroom has antibiotic qualities but prone to absorbing copper and zinc in high proportions.
A Mosiac Puff Ball, Handkea utriformis photo taken from above, amazed at it perfect circular shape!
An old A Mosiac Puff Ball, Handkea utriformis
A Basket of Parasoles and Mosiac Puff Balls
A lawyers Wig, Shaggy Ink Cap, Coprinus comatus. A great begginers mushroom, there is no other like it. Not the best choice mushroom but delicate and worthwhile. Some people cook in milk I have yet to try! Its a saprobic mushroom that helps to decay dead organic vegetation, primarily wood and dung. They are found in pasture, grass verges and fields, it likes highly fertilized areas.This mushroom quickly decompose and become very slimey,black and inky, hence their name Ink was made from these mushrooms in the past and used with feathered ink pens. It is not good to eat at this stage and must be eaten when at it prime as in the picture below.
It has a close relative the Common Ink Cap which although edible must not be consumed with alcohol otherwise it causes palpitations and sickness.
The Prince, Agaricus augustus A wonderful agaric, easy to identify. It is a handsome bold mushroom which stands out with its long pendangular ring and white stem and gills. The cap has brown radiating scales. This mushroom is quite hard to find in good condition, I was amazed to find this beautiful specimen before the worms has got to it as they are very partial to a bit of Prince.
I'm not too fond of this sometimes confusing Agaric genus and always relived that mycologists rely on chemicals to ascertain correct and true identification within this genus; without this it is apparently very hard to be sure. I have always treated this genus with caution as I felt it could be easy to make a mistake. It has always amused me when the real amateur has such confidence when picking just a good ole field mushroom Mmmme it does worry me! Look out for the yellow bleeders and a few others that smell a bit phenolic, inky or like carbolic soap, they are the bad ones that can give very nasty upset stomach..
Amethyst Deciever, Laccaria amethystina a bright purple small mushroom found in broadleaf wood land abundant and common.It is called a deceiver because as the cap dries out and looks brown one is deceived into not picking it. Good for colour in pickled jars of mushrooms but that's about all, its a bit tough with a mild mushroom taste. It has the capability of absorbing high levels of arsenic. Pretty little thing though!
Fairy Ring Champignion, Marasmius oreades. A good edible found from spring throught to Autumn. MUST BE COOKED. Often in rings, ring discolored brown due to competition from mycelium, this is the only mushroom that grows in a ring that discolors the ring brown with an outer and inner circle of nitrogen enriched darker grass either side.
Fairy Ring Champignons, Marasmius oreades. Cap, gills and stem creamy beige, gills widely spaced. Stem tough, central boss in cap a strong id feature. Make sure that this mushroom is not confused with any early fruiting mushrooms such as Ivory Funnel Cap, Clitocybe dealbata and Fools Funnel, C. rivulosa. One way of telling them apart is that the gills of the Fairy Ring Champignons delicious species are free of the cap and the poisonous species gills flow down the stem or are firmly attached.
Dryads Saddle,Pheasant Backed Mushroom, Polyporus Squamosus. Edible when young otherwise as tough as old boots, tastes good too, mushroomy and unexpectedly ok! Parasitic, found on Elm, Beech, Sycamore in Spring about the time St Georges are out. It causes white rot and digests the lignin within the wood, finally killing the tree.
Chicken Of The Woods, Letiporus Sulphureus. A large bracket fungus found in late Spring to Autumn. Bright orange and yellow with pores on the underneath. Found on Oak, Cherry, Chestnut, Willow and Yew ,do not eat this mushroom found on Yew, as Yew is poisonous and may affect the mushrooms edibility. This mushroom MUST BE COOKED otherwise can cause stomach upset and cramps.
Young Chicken Of The Woods, Letiporus Sulphureus. This mushroom MUST BE COOKED otherwise can cause stomach upset and cramps.
Hedgehog Fungus, Wood Hedgehog, Pied de Mouton, Hydnum repandum. These mushrooms are found in mixed woodlands and among'st conifer. The caps are a bit suede like and they have spines instead of gills, they are cream colored to pinkish. often found growing in rings. Very good edible firm texture and good flavor, regularly eaten abroad.
Take a look at this guy hes been munching away , so hes the culprit as always! Like his style!
Giant Funnel, Leucopaxillus giganteus. Often Found in rings from Summer to Autum, cap is 30 cm across and I would not eat anything smaller than this in this genus, for me this size is a clear identification as the many species within this family are smaller and hard to distinguish without a microscope, it is a good edible, sweet, mealy and a good mushroom flavor but be careful with this mushroom if you decide to have the courage there are some good edibles within this genus but more poisonous ones . The poisonous ones contain toxins such as muscarine and others.
Saffron Milk Cap,Lactarius deliciosus. This mushroom is a highly prized mushroom an excellent edible, highly prized in Europe. The milk is carrot colour and the flesh bruises green. Stem has distinctive round depressions, orange and sometimes green, these little marks are a clear identification feature of this species.
Saffron Milk Cap, A clear picture of the gills, marks on carrot colored stem and vivid orange after cutting.These were found in among'st Pines.
Shaggy Parasole, Macrolepiota rhacodes. I eat these and like alot, with me they are ok but have been warned by veteran tree expert and mycologist Ted Green," people will come a cropper eating these and its just a matter of time! "So kind words of warning taken on board and passing on the message. They are considered an edible but with some people it has adverse affects and causes a very unpleasant stomach upset. Generally found in woodland or close by conifer, it has a strong smell sort of spicy.
Shaggies being cooked up!! Cut in circles for a change.
A Chanterelle, Porchini, Deceivers and Black trumpet medley with Quail eggs!
A late season basket of Blewits, Parasoles and Porcini. I would not normally pick such a young Porcini (bottom right) but a few had been kicked over by someone so I took em ! A bit mad to be finding Porcini and Parasols in December as well!!
Wood Blewit, a great late mushroom, early winter. Perfumed smelling, bluish violet colour throughout careful not to confuse with any Cortinarius species of similar colours.
The broadly spaced gills of Wax Caps.
White Coral fungus, Clavulina corralloides. A very delicate and pretty little fungus also edible, common in conifer and broadleaf woodland.
A Summer Truffle poking through the ground.
All the next photos are either not edible, should not be eaten or poisonous, Remember do not eat mushrooms without the advise of a professional !!
Brown Roll Rim, Paxillus involutus. This mushroom is very poisonous. It may not affect you the first time or even the second but the toxins accumulate within and after repeated consumption it can be fatal. It has been responsible for numerous deaths. Found in deciduous woodland often with birch and heathland, Has easily been mistaken for other types of mushroom. Brown cap, always darker in the middle, bruising red/brown on stem cap and gills. Cap is very inrolled when young with clear grooved margins along the edge. The cap can be easily removed from stem.
Brown Roll Rim, gills and cap show discoloration after bruising.
Fully grown Stinkhorn, flies attracted to the green sickly smelling spores.
Fly agaric, a hallucinogenic poisonous mushroom which can result in deep comas and occasional death . Amanita muscaria , Amanitas are a dangerous genus.
Fly Agaric depicted as a fairy tale mushroom aimed at children, maybe not so clever!
Love how these Fly Agarics have lifted the soil with them.
False Death Cap, Amanita citrina, slightly poisonous maybe even not but should be well avoided in case of confusion between other deadly species of Amanita.
Jack o'lantern, Omphalotus olearius highly poisonous cause severe abdominal cramps which last for a few days. Careful not to confuse these for Chanterelles.
Sulphur tufts, Hypholoma fasciculare. This picture does not do this mushrooms colour justice as it can be bright yellow. Found in coniferous and broadleaf woodland. Not edible , possibly poisonous!.
A Dark Scaled Mushroom, Agaricus moelleri . A Poisonous agaric mushroom found in chalk woodland. Its a bit like a yellow bleeder with similar poison and also has flesh that turns yellow on bruising.Fruits in large troops.
A Dark Scaled Mushroom, Agaricus moelleri .
Violet Web Cap, Cortinarius violaceus, Said to be edible but not recommended as part of the very dangerous genus, nearly all the species within this genus contain very nasty toxins, a mycorhizzal mushroom that is On Red Data list and should not be picked as it is an endangered species.
Shaggy Scalycap , Pholiota Squarrosa. This mushroom has been known to cause problems if eaten often or with alcohol so best avoided. Found on old Aspen, Birch and other deciduous tress.
A Rustgill mushroom
My Mushroom Farm pics below
Innoculating logs with mycelium plugs
Fir Oyster plugs lined up ready to go in.
Lions Maine mushroom logs
Other truffle related events that I have done.
Truffle hound training session with the wonderful Marion Dean to confirm to myself I was on the right path with Zebedee.
Zebedee and myself at truffle training school with Marion Dean at the only truffle hound competition that has taken place in the UK. A great day which affirmed to me that I was training Zeb in the right way, he didn't come first but not last either, as an eight month old pup I was happy!
Marion Dean at her truffle hound competition, a wonderful event!
Hard to see but this is when I attended the Spoleto Tuber Conference In Umbria 2008, I did a presentation on Marketing and Advertising. Raising truffle awareness for gastronomical, ecological,conservation, sustainable and economic reasons.
Young truffle trees, oak whips ready to plant out that already have the mycorhizzal asociation on the roots, which after a few years wait should produce truffles.
Richard Mansfield Clark and I at Bentley Museum in East Sussex for the Woodland and Countryside Festival at the Wildfowl Center at Bentley Museum, Thanks Richard for letting me hijack your stand!
All photographs on this site, except for photographs directly attributed to other photographers, are the property of Melissa Waddingham, Copyright 2017.